Find all the terms in Data Quality Management and their definition. If some explanations do not seem to answer your questions, do not hesitate to contact us.

360° View

In marketing, 360° view refers to a strategic approach with the aim of consistently identifying and coordinating all the resources within the company's reach. A 360° customer view means adapting the company's communication on the different points of contact with your customers in order to manage the customer relationship across all channels.

Address Area

The address area is the area on the envelope for the postal address so that distributor mechanisms can function optimally.

Address Line 2

The address line 2 is an open input field in the postal address (additional clarification to identify the letter recipient: company, building, etc.). The AFNOR standard stipulates that this information must be on the second line of the address.

Address Line 3

The address line 3 is an open input field in the postal address (additional clarification to identify the letter's delivery location: private road, building, etc.). The AFNOR standard stipulates that this information must be on the third line of the address. The Hexaligne 3 database standardizes this address field.


AFNOR (Association Française de Normalisation) is the official French standardization body and member of the International Standardization Organization (ISO) with which it represents France. AFNOR was founded in 1926 and is placed under the auspices of the French Ministry for Industry. AFNOR publishes the collection of NF standards under the French national nomenclature.


Form autocomplete is a method of input assistance in the different fields of the form. This features adapts its suggestions as a letter or word is entered, and automatically makes these suggestions in the different fields of a form.
Form autocomplete mainly:
- facilitates data entry
- saves time for people filling in forms (customers, prospective customers, phone operators, branch advisors or physical points of sale, etc.)
- avoids typos
Often, these benefits increase the form conversion rate.


The expression Business to Business (B2B) refers to activity between companies, i.e. all the activities of a company targeting a professional or business clientele.
In general, B2B concerns all the means, technical architecture and computer software used to put companies in contact with each other and facilitate exchanges of products, services and information.


The term Business to Consumer (B2C or B2C) qualifies relationships between businesses or professionals and end consumers.
In general, B2C is all the means, technical architecture and computer software that put companies directly in contact with consumers.


In IT, batch processing is an automatic sequence of orders (process) on a computer without the involvement of an operator. In Data Quality Management, we refer to Batch processing when we verify and cleanse large volumes of data.

Big Data

The term Big Data literally means mass data. It refers to all the computer data from a wide variety of sources which can be processed and leveraged to extract relevant information.


In marketing, bounces are e-mails that are not delivered: this is the number of e-mails that are not received by recipients when they have been sent. We generally distinguish between two types of bounces:
- " soft bounces ": temporary errors (e.g. the recipient's inbox is full or the e-mail server is temporarily unavailable)
- " hard bounces ": permanent errors (e.g. domain name no longer exists, incorrect e-mail syntax).

Cart Abandonment

In an e-commerce context, we refer to cart abandonment when a visitor to a retail website does not complete their order: despite selecting one or more items, the user does not confirm their virtual shopping cart.
The abandonment rate varies according to the business sector. There may be several reasons that explain a very high cart abandonment rate: ergonomics issue in the conversion tunnel, the order form is too long, problem in the payment procedure, etc.

CDP (Customer Data Platform)

A CDP is a marketing technology for centralizing and unifying customer data from all online and offline channels. The CDP condenses client information, puts it in order and organizes it to facilitate its activation. The aim is to be able to build powerful customer profiles to improve communication campaigns offering a personalized experience.


CEDEXA is a French postal database. This computer database lists the complete geographical and geopostal addresses of 180,000 companies in France with a CEDEX code.


CHARADE computer processing consists of comparing the postal addresses in your customer database with those of La Poste's database listing people who have recently moved. This database processing therefore identifies customers from a database of customers who have recently changed addressed, in particular to limit the number of undeliverable items sent by post.

CNIL or French Data Protection Authority

The CNIL (Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libertés) or French data protection authority is a French independent administrative authority. It is responsible for ensuring that IT serves citizens and that it does not infringe on human identity or rights.

Conversion Rate

The conversion rate refers to the fraction of the number of contacts (website visit, opening an email, etc.) performing an action that is expected from the total number of contacts.

CRM Form

A CRM form enables you to identify prospective customer or customer data by entering information it its fields (last name, first name, role, company, etc.) in the company's CRM tool.


Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is defined as all the tools and techniques to identify, process and analyze information relating to customers and prospective customers, in an aim to foster their loyalty by offering them the best service.

Curative (Batch) Solution

Refers to a solution that is used when batch processing in databases. Also referred to as a Batch solution.

Customer Database

The customer database (or prospective customer database) is a set of data relating to the company's customers (or prospective customers). It includes structured and organized data, signage information relating to every customer (or prospective customer): last name, first name, postal address, e-mail, phone number, etc.
The database can also include the data relating to the purchase history and the marketing relationship: sales offers sent, responses to the receipt of an e-mail campaign, open quotes, incoming calls, etc.

Data Cleansing

Data cleansing enables us to check and correct data (e.g. e-mail, postal addresses, etc.) while ensuring companies' database formats are standardized. Postal data cleansing processes enable us to optimize the quality of all companies' data (prospective customers, customers and suppliers).

Data Enhancement

Data enhancement consists in enhancing your existing databases by adding new information.
Data enhancement enables companies to get to know their contacts' profiles better (customers, prospective customers, etc.) and therefore adapt the message and the offer aimed at them.

Data Governance

Data governance is all the measures and procedures put in place within an organization to oversee the collection of data and its use (meeting legal obligations, rules established in the company, etc.).

Data Management

Data management refers to all the practices relating to the collection, maintenance, analysis, storage, archiving, security and provision of data, etc. necessary for the company's activities.

Data Processing

Data processing refers to all the actions carried out on data in order to clean and standardize it...

Data Qualification

Data qualification is an operation that consists in verifying the accuracy of the data present in a customer or prospective customer database. The purpose of this practice is to improve the quality of customer databases and thereby optimize the efficiency of sales and marketing campaigns (e-mailing, mailing, prospecting, etc.).

Data Quality

Data Quality is a measurement of the data's condition based on factors such as accuracy, exhaustiveness, consistency, reliability and longevity. Data Quality enables organizations to assess the quality of their data and identify the errors that must be resolved. Within an organization, data quality has great importance because the decisions taken based on incorrect data can harm activity.

Data Stewardship

Data Stewardship is a notion that consists of managing the data stored within an organization. The Data Steward's role is to define the data use and security policies determined within the framework of company data governance projects and have them applied.

Database Audit

Database audit is a method for performing an analysis or review of the data present in one or more databases to identify weaknesses and/or non-conformities (according to an audit framework). Then, it enables you to carry out the appropriate actions to correct the discrepancies and malfunctions observed.


Deduplication is all the solutions enabling the identification, cleansing and merging of the data and duplicates present in the same database. Deduplication can also be done between several databases.
It is the elimination of redundant data present in different files.

Disposable E-mail Address

A disposable e-mail address is an anonymous and temporary e-mail address. Once the expiry time has been reached, the e-mail address is automatically destroyed.
A disposable e-mail address enables the user to register for a website, download content, receive an offer... without providing their usual e-mail address and avoiding them receiving spam and advertisements. A disposable e-mail address is often used for fraud attempts.

DMP (Data Management Platform)

A Data Management Platform (DMP) is a software program to store and manage prospective customer and customer data. This information from different sources is centralized within the platform and then enables you to refine the marketing targets and personalize the user experience.

DQM (Data Quality Management)

Data Quality Management or DQM is the management of reference data: it groups all the actions and procedures aiming to define, store, guarantee and maintain marketing data quality within an organization. DQM enables you to guarantee the accuracy and reliability of the data collected and thereby improve the effectiveness and performance of marketing and CRM actions using this data.


A duplicate is information that appears redundantly in the same database whose dual (or even more) presence serves no purpose.

Duplicate Management

To manage the duplicates in a database, it is recommended to have a duplicate management tool that will enable you to identify duplicates and carry out deduplication and merging (bringing together the information from two contact records into just one, for example) operations.
Duplication management aims to improve the performance and effectiveness of its sales and marketing actions.

E-mail Address

The e-mail address comprises a personal username and a domain name, separated by the at-sign (@). E.g. An e-mail address enables you to send and receive messages just like mail, but electronically.

Email Address Validation

Email address validation consists of checking the syntax of the email address and the existence of the domain name and checking the email address user name.

Email Address Verification

Email address verification consists of verifying and checking the validity of email addresses, either in real time when entering the address in a form, or curatively via batch processing in a database.


ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) is a computerized tool for managing the company.

ERP incorporates the main functional components of the company: production management, sales management, logistics, human resources, accounting and management audit. Using this unified system, the users in different business lines work in an identical application environment based on a single database. This model enables you to ensure data integrity and non-redundancy of information and reduce processing time.


ESTOCADE is the database of former addresses of individuals who have moved home within the past three years, and whose mail forwarding contract has expired.
Estocade processing consists of using the Estocade database as a no-contact database to limit the number of undeliverable items before carrying out direct marketing campaigns.

No definition


Geocoding consists of assigning geographical coordinates (longitude/latitude) to an address. This process leads to the implementation of automated processing on a one-off basis or on address databases (individuals, companies, points of interest, etc.). Geographical coordinates enable you to position every address on a digital map via a Geographical Information System (GIS). Geocoding is one of the geolocation or georeferencing techniques.


Geolocation or georeferencing is a technique enabling us to position a person (or an object, etc.) on a map or a plan using their geographical coordinates.
The geolocation operation is carried out using a terminal that can be located via a satellite positioning system (a GPS receiver, for example) and publishing the geographical coordinates in real time or later (latitude/longitude).
In marketing, for example, this method enables us to geographically locate the receiver of an advertising message over the Internet or on their cell phone.


Geomarketing groups all the marketing actions based on the geography of populations and consumption. This approach is therefore based on the analysis of geographical, socio-behavioral and socio-demographic data (residential locations, types of habitat, socio-professional category by neighborhood, etc.).


Hexacle is one of the French postal databases: it is used to validate and correct street numbers. The Hexacle address database contains:
- the street code: this number uniquely identifies the street in the French street database (HEXAVIA) and enables us to link the two files.
- the number on the street: this is the number on the plate fastened to the building
- the number extension, if necessary (a, b, etc.)
- the HEXACLÉ geographical key


Hexaligne3 is one of the French postal databases: it is used to check, complete and correct the address line 3 information (Private Road-Building). The Hexaligne3 address database contains over 535,000 address lines listed in France.


Hexaposte is one of the French postal databases. The Hexaposte address database enables us to check postcodes, CEDEXes and check and standardize the spelling of municipalities, in accordance with AFNOR standard.


Hexavia is one of the French postal databases: it is used to complete and correct the name of the street in databases. The Hexavia address database lists all the streets (more than 2,100,000) in the 36,600 municipalities in France, as well as their synonyms (former name and local name).

Input Help

Input help is a tool that facilitates and accelerates data entry: e-mail address, postal address, enhancement of B2B data, etc.


To prepare the dissemination of the 1999 population census, INSEE (French National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies) developed a division of the country into parcels of homogeneous size called IRIS2000. This acronym meant 'Parcels Grouped for Statistical Information' and referred to the intended size of 2,000 inhabitants per basic parcel. Ever since, IRIS (which is now used instead of IRIS2000) is the basic brick in terms of disseminating infra-municipal data. It must meet geographical and demographic criteria and have identifiable and unambiguous boundaries that are stable over time.


A license (or 'on premise' installation) is a right of use granted to a user for given software. Acquiring a license grants you the right to install and use the software on a computer. The license is a contract that indicates your rights in relation to the use of this software.

Master Data Management (MDM)

Master Data Management (MDM) is all the tools to improve and maintain the quality of reference data within a single database. MDM enables us to cleanse data, make it consistent, consolidate it and eliminate duplicates. Through this process, the company has a unique, reliable and up-to-date vision of its data.


In IT, MATCH mode means 'instantly' or 'in real time' in opposition to Batch mode.


In marketing, the term multi-channel refers to the phenomenon of simultaneous or alternate use of different contact channels for product marketing and/or customer relations.
In terms of Data Quality Management, the challenge for a company is to centralize contact records in one database by collecting information through multiple communication channels: distance selling (e-commerce in particular), points of sale, letters, etc.


The acronym NFTA means 'Not found at this address'. In direct marketing, the term NFTA is used to mean that the letter cannot reach its destination and serves as a qualitative references within the framework of using address databases.

Online Form

The online form is a space dedicated to entering prospective customer data which comprises several fields to be filled out, which are either required or optional, enabling the organization collecting the information entered to enhance its database.

Online Input

Online input consists of filling in a form at the data entry terminal to enhance data (postal or other). These forms may be available to the customer themselves (input form on a website for example) or a data entry person (intranet or web form, etc.).

Postal Address

The postal address is a letter recipient's full location. It is written on the envelope by the letter's sender and enables the postal company to route and deliver said letter. Postal addresses meet presentation standards specific to every country.

Postal Address Input

Postal address input is enhancing the customer database(s) with contacts' postal addresses.

Postal Address Management

Postal address management is the process by which the company verifies, corrects and autocompletes the postal addresses present in its database.

Postal Address Standardization

Standardization comprises a set of IT processes to present the postal addresses contained in a database according to the current postal standards. Standardizing an address means applying a reference in a format that is recognized by everyone.

The standardization of postal address reduces the number of NFTA/undeliverable items.

Postal Address Verification

Postal address verification consists of checking and confirming the existence of a postal address.

Postal Database

A Postal database is a 'reference' database. There are postal address reference databases that contain all the information relating to the address, in mainland France (including Corsica) and the overseas territories, to standardize your addresses and optimize your dispatches as well as all the countries with a postal service structure. Every postal database is dedicated to a specific field of application.

Postal Standard

The AFNOR standard XPZ 10-011 of May 1997 is the consensual result of a team of address professionals.
The six golden rules of the standard (excerpt):
- ordered information with every line having a precise role.
- six lines maximum (seven for international addresses, the last line being reserved for the name of the destination country).
- 38 characters maximum per line, including spaces.
- No punctuation, italics or underlining
- The last three lines always in upper case letters.
- Address box aligned on the left.

Postal Validation

Postal validation means checking the accuracy of the information that makes up an address with postal reference databases that are regularly updated.

Preventive Solution

Refers to a solution that assists the operator in initial data entry so avoid populating the database with incorrect data. We also refer to a Match solution.

No definition


Restructuring is the action of restructuring the address, i.e. positioning the different parts of the address in the right place in terms of the AFNOR (French Standardization Association) standard.

RNVP Processing

RNVP processing (Restructuration, Normalisation, Validation Postale in French or postal address verification) optimizes the addresses saved in the company's customer database.
RNVP processing (Restructuration-Normalisation-Validation Postale in French) is based on reference data (post code, CEDEX, French streets dictionaries, etc.) and on the computer tools capable of implementing them (RNVP software).


SaaS means 'Software as a Service'. This is a concept that consists of offering a subscription to software instead of purchasing a license. With the development of Information and Communication Technologies, more and more SaaS offers are over the web. There is therefore no longer any need to install an office application but to use a client-server program.

SCV (Single Customer View)

The Single Customer View (SCV) is a unified view of the customer. We also refer to '360' or '360-degree'. For an organization this involves gathering all the data about its prospective customers and clients in a single centralized place to obtain a single, consistent and powerful overview.


Siretisation is a French term for the action of enhancing an address database by assigning every company in the database its SIRET (business registration) number. Assigned by INSEE, the SIRET (Système d'Identification du Répertoire des Établissements) number is a unique and official identifier for every French company.

Smart Contextual Matching (SCM)

Smart Contextual Matching (SCM) is an innovative technology developed by DQE that uses algorithms able to take into account the context and format of different data (e-mails, postal addresses, phone numbers, etc.) in its analysis to compare and match data to each other in a smart way, in particular in an aim to deduplicate customer databases.

Smart data

Smart data is a data collection and processing approach that highlights the need to focus on relevant data to carry out marketing campaigns. The notion of smart data appeared following the boom in data volumes gathered as part of the big data phenomenon.

SMTP server

An " SMTP server " is a messaging server that conveys a sender's emails over the Internet to one or more recipients according to the SMTP network protocol rules. An important function of the SMTP server is to avoid spam through authentication mechanisms through which it is only possible to send emails to authorized users.


Founded in 1996 by La Poste, the French postal service, the SNA (Service National de l'Adresse) helps respond to customers' problems by improving the quality of address databases used by mail senders. It also enhances the databases used by La Poste's mail production system to improve the quality of the postal service. In this way, the SNA helps limit the number of undeliverable items.


Founded in 1933, the SNCD is the professional organization dedicated to the promotion of multichannel direct marketing and customer relations techniques and practices. The SNCD, which represents multichannel direct marketing and customer relationship professionals, has 130 member companies which have chosen to offer their services in accordance with the ethics and practices in the profession.


Standardization is the process through which we assign a certain format to data. This format can meet a standard or follow the company's choice for a certain category of data.
Standardizing data means applying a reference in a format that is recognized by standard or practice.

Third-party data

Third-party data is all the data that has not been collected by the advisor directly or explicitly from the prospective customer or client. This information is often provided by third-party companies, data aggregators. In general, third-party data is behavioral or declarative data used for advertising or marketing targeting.

Unique Customer Repository

The UCR or Unique Customer Repository lists and centralizes all a company's customer data in a single information system to have a single, 360° view in an omnichannel environment.

No definition

Web Form

The web form is a tool dedicated to gathering information entered by a web user on a web page or an HTML e-mail. Often, a Web form contains different information (checkbox or radio buttons, text field, etc.) to collect different types of data in an optimal way (contact data, coordinates, preferences, etc.).

No definition